www.dipole.se © 1996-2016 by Bengt E Nyman                   

www.dipole.se

Introduction

 

Understanding the universe around us is becoming less a question of offering simple and intuitiv explanations and more one of producing mathematical models allowing us to calculate and predict the effects of the mechanisms in question. In a way this is unfortunate in that it contributes to obscure many interesting phenomena from the curious but mathematically untrained human mind. One such example is gravity.

 

The Standard Model of physics today uses two models to try to get to grips with gravity. One is a combination of the esoteric Space Time and Relativity, which are difficult to fit into an intuitiv context.

The other one is the Graviton, a fictitious particle which adds gravity to certain other particles.

Neither of these concepts claim to offer an understanding of the mechanism, but attempts to provide the mathematics required to deal with it.

 

The latest in this way of modeling our universe is the introduction of the Higgs particle which adds mass to otherways mass-less particles.

 

There is certainly a justification in packaging yet unexplained phenomena into mathematical concepts allowing limited scientific processing though lacking a practical connection to how we humans see the world. The challenge is to leave the door open to transition to a more detailed understanding of very complex phenomena when that knowledge becomes available.

 

In time the relatively rigid concept of particles is due to give way for a more dynamic set of energy constellations of more or less stable nests of complex, closed loop, standing waves with characteristics defined by their complexity, content and lifespan.

 

In 1964 physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig proposed the quark model, detailing the content inside protons and neutrons to include electrically charged sub particles named up- and down-quarks. Protons and neutrons can consequently be modeled as triangular formations with electrically charged regions, even if in case of the neutron the sum of the -1/3, -1/3 and +2/3e electrically charged regions equals zero.

 

According to Coulombs Law the attraction between two dissimilar electrical charges is the product of the measure of the two electrical charges divided by the square of the distance between them.

F=ke(q1 x q2)/r^2

 

The following deals with the subjects Gravity and Strong Force in that order. However, it should be noted that both are the results of electrostatic attraction/repulsion between charged particles including quarks, protons, neutrons and atoms. All these constallations, including seamingly neutral particles such as neutrons and atoms also have the ability to respond to external charges including other dipoles, to themselves form dipoles.

 

In search of the mechanism that causes gravity it should be noted that the more dominant forces such as strong force and bonds between atoms and molecules in a solid body dominate the picture that describes the pattern, the positions and the directions of individial dipole axis. While these stronger forces determine the primary and very irregular pattern of and between dipoles in solid objects, these dipoles are also sensitive to electrostatic influences from adjacent objects giving rise to microscopic shifts in the intra-body dipole patterns, resulting in gravity.

 

In other words, if you managed to map the dipole directions in a solid body within earth gravity you would not see a uniform dipole orientation pointing to the influence of earth gravity. You would only see a microscopic deviation in dipole orientation from the dipole pattern recorded while free from the influence of earth gravity.

 

Atoms

 

 

          The following presents a study of forces and motions of atoms and particles as a result of electrostatic interactions between charged constituents such as protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms, as well as quarks in neutrons and protons.

 

This study came about as a result of experimental simulations of electrostatic characteristics of and relationships between protons and electrons in hydrogen atoms as well as between quarks in protons and neutrons. The simulations showed a weak but consistent and robust attraction between particles essentially irrespective of simulation parameters imposed on the particles.

 

Electrostatic forces between two hydrogen atoms are both attracting and repelling. The separately computed individual forces are extremely large but cancel each other except for leaving a weak rest force. The same was observed between sets of quarks in neutrons, where the very large attracting and repelling forces cancel each other except for leaving a weak rest force. It was concluded that because of the electrostatic elasticity between protons and electron orbitals as well as between individual quarks in protons and neutrons, electrostatically driven, very small particle shifts resulted in the small rest forces and particle attractions seen in the simulations.

 

The simulations presented below are performed in mathematically correct physics simulation software. The simulations shown use simple, electrically charged bodies to represent electrically charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles in question. Consequently, the simulations do not claim to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond electrostatic attraction and repulsion between simulated particles.

 

The diagram below shows two hydrogen atoms and illustrates part of the electrostatic mechanism which produce a weak force between free atoms. The mechanism shown involves four force vectors between the two atoms. Two are attracting and two are repulsing. Each proton attracts the electron of the other atom while also repelling the proton in the other atom. The four forces result is a shift of the two electron orbitals in relation to their protons, producing a conditional dipole consisting of the center of effort of the electron versus the location of the proton in each atom.

 

As a consequence of the electrostatic interactions, attracting charges move somewhat closer to each other while repulsing charges move slightly further away from each other. Based on Coulombs law the result is a slight advantage to the sum of attracting forces over the sum of repulsing forces, such that the resulting force balance always yields a small, attracting net force between the atoms. See figure 1 and associated conceptual calculation below.

 

 

Links to Hydrogen simulations:

 

The simulations presented below are performed in mathematically correct physics simulation software.

The simulations shown use electrically charged bodies to represent electrically charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles in question. The simulations do not claim to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond electrostatic attraction and repulsion between simulated particles.

 

Charge Posturing, dipole formation and ES gravity between 2 hydrogen atoms:

The moving red dot indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QB-DYEmRo3o

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFaL_ZFqQUI

The electrostatic dipole

 

Figure 1. Conceptual, numerical example according to Coulomb's Law:

Attraction = ke* q^2* (/0.9^2 + e^2/1.1^2 - e^2/1^2 - e^2/1^2)

= ke* q^2* (1/0.81 + 1/1.21 - 1/1 - 1/1)

= ke* q^2* (1.23456790 + 0.82644628 - 1 - 1)

= ke* q^2* (0.06101418)

= ke* 0.061q^2

 

As can be seen in the result of the calculation above, the dipole interaction between two atoms always yields a small, positive attracting rest force between the atoms.

 

 

Figure 2. Quantification of electrostatically driven dipole offset:

 

 

The following calculates the real size of the dipole offset in the case of two hydrogen atoms placed r meters apart:

 

Dipole attraction between two hydrogen atoms r meter apart:

F = ke*(q1*q2)[1/(r-x)^2 + 1/(r+x)^2 - 1/r^2 - 1/r^2]

ke = 8.9875517873681764*10^9 N*m^2*C^-2

q1 = q2 = 1.60217662*10^-19 C

x = dipole eccentricity

F = 8.98755*10^9 *(1.60217662*10^-19)^2 *[1/(r-x)^2 + 1/(r+x)^2 - 2/r^2]

F = 2.307077*10^-32 *[1/(r-x)^2 + 1/(r+x)^2 - 2/r^2] Newton

Compare this to Newton mass gravity between two hydrogen atoms r meter apart:

 

F = G*(m1*m2)/r^2

Where G = 6.674*10^-11

F = 6.674*10^-11 *(1.6737236*10^-27)^2/ r^2

F = 1.86962*10^-66 /r^2 Newton

 

Setting dipole attraction equal to Newton gravity yields the corresponding dipole offset:

 

2.307077*10^-32 *[1/(r-x)^2 + 1/(r+x)^2 - 2/r^2] = 1.86962*10^-66 /r^2

1.23398*10^34 *[1/(r-x)^2 + 1/(r+x)^2 - 2/r^2] = 1/r^2

 

Solving the equation above for r = 1 meter gives x:

x = 3.675*10^-18 meter.

 

X varies with the distance r between atoms

Compare: Proton radius = 0.85x10^-15 meter

Hydrogen atom radius, or Bohr Radius = 5.2917721092×10^-11 meter

There ara two reasons why studying atom dipole formation alone does not yield a complete numerical answer as to dipole attraction as the cause of gravity:

1. There are no atom dipole elongation measurements (x) available to verify the results above.

2. There are reasons to believe that gravity between atoms involves dipole formation between nucleus and electron orbital(s) as well as dipole formation between quarks in the atomic nucleus.

 

To resolve this please see Neutrons and Protons below.

 

Charge Visibility Factor

 

A simplified way to look at dipole attraction is to introduce a charge visibility factor Kv. The proton on the left is partially obscured by its own electron cloud but attracted to the electron cloud on the right. Ignoring the very small offsets calculated above, a simple dipole gravity model including the two closest ES components and the charge visibility factor Kv can be constructed. Knowing the gravitational force and proposing that it is electrostatic in nature we get:

 

1.86962*10^-66 /r^2 = 8.98755*10^9*(Kva*1.60217662*10^-19)^2 /r^2

1.86962*10^-66 = 8.98755*10^9*(Kva*1.60217662*10^-19)^2

Kva^2 = 8.1037*10^-36

Kva = 2.8466*10^-18

 

Electrostatic dipole attraction between atoms where r >> x can now be expressed as follows:

 

F = ke*(Kva*q1)*(Kva*q2) /r^2

Links to multiple body simulations:

 

The simulations presented below are performed in mathematically correct physics simulation software.

The simulations shown use electrically charged bodies to represent electrically charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles in question. The simulations do not claim to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond electrostatic attraction and repulsion between simulated particles.

 

Charge Posturing, dipole formation and ES gravity between 3 hydrogen atoms.

The moving red dot indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86GY_tu2L9A

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yUxGd5i8d68

Multiple Body Attractions

 

Each body reacts electrostatically to each and every body in its environment. In case of for example three hydrogen atoms, the dipole formation of each atom becomes the result of the response to the charges in both adjacent atoms. The proton in each atom is attracted to both adjacent electrons and repelled by both adjacent protons while the electron in the same atom is is attracted to both adjacent protons and repelled by both adjacent electrons.

 

The vector diagram below shows all twelve force vectors involved. The size of the individual forces are determined by Coulomb's Law. The individual force vectors for each atom point in different directions. The composite,

resultant vector determines the final force acting on the body. In this case the resultant points between the two adjacent atoms and describes the direction of the compound dipole offset and the electrostatic pull on said atom.

 

In case of more bodies in the environment there are additional individual force vectors, the composite of which determines the direction of the composite force, the composite dipole axis of each body and the electrostatic pull on that body.

 

          Neutrons and Protons

          A mechanism similar to the dipole formation in interacting atoms has been observed in computer simulations involving quarks in interacting neutrons and protons. A neutron consists of one +2/3e up quark and two -1/3e down quarks giving the neutron an overall charge of zero.

 

Links to neutron gravity simulations:

 

The simulations shown use electrically charged bodies to represent electrically charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles. The simulations do not claim to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond electrostatic attraction and repulsion between particles.

 

Charge posturing and ES gravity between 2 neutrons:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmsssEfkq1I

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bvdcgkuVLsY

 

 

Neutron Attraction

Figure 3. Posturing between two neutrons:

The following calculates the size of the ES induced offset x in two neutrons placed r meter apart.

ES attraction between two neutrons r meter apart:

F = ke*(q1*q2)[2*(1/3*2/3)/(r+x)^2 +2*(1/3*2/3)/(r-x)^2 -4*(1/3*1/3)/(r)^2 -(2/3*2/3)/r2]

F = ke*(q1*q2)*4/9[1/(r+x)^2 - 1/(r-x)^2 - 2/r^2]

ke = 8.9875517873681764*10^9 N*m^2*C^-2

q1 =q2 = 1.60217662*10^-19 C

x = tripole offset

F = 8.98755*10^9 *(1.60217662*10^-19)^2 *4/9[1/(r+x)^2 - 1/(r-x)^2 - 2/r^2]

F = 2.307077*10^-32 *4/9[1/(r+x)^2 - 1/(r-x)^2 - 2/r^2] Newton

Newton mass gravity between two neutrons, r meter apart:

 

F = G*(m1*m2)/r^2

Where G = 6.674*10^-11

F = 6.674*10^-11 *(1.674*10^-27)^2/ r^2

F = 1.86962*10^-66 /r^2 Newton

 

2.307077*10^-32 *4/9[1/(r-x)^2 - 1/(r+x)^2 - 2/r^2] = 1.86962*10^-66 /r^2

1.23398*10^34 *4/9[1/(r-x)^2 - 1/(r+x)^2 - 2/r^2] = 1/r^2

Setting dipole attraction equal to Newton gravity yields the corresponding dipole offset:

 

2.307077*10^-32 *4/9[1/(r-x)^2 + 1/(r+x)^2 - 2/r^2] = 1.86962*10^-66 /r^2

0.548435*10^34 *[1/(r-x)^2 + 1/(r+x)^2 - 2/r^2] = 1/r^2

 

Solving the equation above for various distances between the neutrons gives the associated quark distances as well as a comparison between Newton gravity and Dipole attraction between two neutrons:

 

Before accepting this as evidence that gravity can be caused by particle posturing, dipole formation and subsequent electrostatic attraction we need to ask a few questions:

 

1. Are electrostatic dipole forces capable of generating forces in the magnitude of gravity ?

2. Can these forces be identical over a range of masses and distances ?

3. Are the required dipole offsets represented by quark distance (x) in a range consistent with available quark working envelopes within neutrons and protons ?

4. Do these findings conflict with any teachings of the present Standard Model ?

The answers to these questions are:

 

1. YES. The individual electrostatic forces available are many orders of magnitude larger than the gravity resultants.

2. YES. These forces are identical over the total range of masses and distances.

3. YES. Neutron as well as proton diameters are in the order of 2x0.85*10^-15 m. The quark distances calculated above are well within the elbowroom of neutrons and protons.

4. NO. The present Standard Model recognizes the lack of a credible model of gravity which is mathematically compatible with the rest of the teachings of the present Standard Model.

 

          Strong Force

 

          

The hypothesis described above suggests that gravity might be the result of electrostatic particle posturing and interctions described. The same hypothesis suggests that Strong Force might be the result of a multitude of competing electrostatic force vectors. These forces are both attracting and repelling and the distances between the participating particles vary why the strength of individual force vectors are specific to each pair of interacting particles.

 

A Proton consists of a group of three quarks, two +2/3 up quarks and one -1/3 down quark. The proton charge is therefore +1. Protons consequently normally repel each other.

 

The simulations presented below are performed in mathematically correct physics simulation software.

The simulations shown use electrically charged bodies to represent charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles. The simulations do not claim to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond electrostatic attraction and repulsion between particles.

 

Links to strong force simulations:

 

The simulations shown use electrically charged bodies to represent electrically charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles in question. The simulations do not claim to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond electrostatic attraction and repulsion between simulated particles.

 

Quark posturing, ES interactions and strong force between neutrons and protons:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLZ1OzCQ-Ws

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCdnDJBEZuc

 

Quark posturing, ES interactions and repulsion between protons:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZviCBkbnYw

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XRmoAyMPvY

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EKrkHIBOjoQ

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWhw7Jt5rIE

 

Quark posturing, ES interaction and attraction prior to transmutation and strong force:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYHhevzyFJY

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iSVMdEs6bVc

 

Also see static figures below illustrating the concept of strong force repulsion, cross over point and strong force attraction:

 

Figure 5: Protons under repulsion.

Figure 6: Protons at the cross over point between repulsion and attraction.

Figure 7: Electron transmutation of one down up-quark to a down-quark changing one proton into a neutron.

Figure 8: Neutron and Proton under strong force

 

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8

Figure 5

Quantitative results of the Dipole Theory

 

 

Dipole elongation and the atomic clock.

 

An atomic clock runs 30 microseconds per day slower at earths surface than it does in GPS satellite orbit. This corresponds to a relative error of 3.472*10^-10.

A Hydrogen atomic clock uses hydrogen atoms as a frequency medium. In gravity free space a hydrogen atom is externally neutral while the electron orbit is centered around the proton. In earth gravity a hydrogen atom is slightly elongated into a dipole where the center of the electron orbit is offset from the center of charge of the proton. This slows the frequency of the electron orbit. Knowing the Coulomb attraction force between proton and electron in a hydrogen atom, as well as the Coulomb dipole gravity between the hydrogen atom and earth I can calculate the expected orbital disturbance and associated orbital frequency reduction of the electron in the hydrogen atom while in earth gravity.

 

1. Hydrogen atom centering force:

 

This is the electrostatic attraction between the electron and the proton in the hydrogen atom according to Coulombs law.

 

F1 = K(e*e)/r^2

K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2

e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 coulombs

r = Bohr's radius = 5.29×10^-11 m

F1 = 4.357*10^20

 

2. Dipole gravity distraction force:

 

This is is the electrostatic attraction between the negative charge of the electron in the hydrogen atom and the sum of the positive dipole charges in earth, resulting in dipole elongation of the hydrogen atom and corresponding slowing of the hydrogen clock frequency.

 

F2 = K(n*e*e)/L^2

K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2

e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 coulombs

n*e = N = The sum of positive charges in earth calculated by the mass of earth divided by the mass of one proton:

N = (5.972*10^24)kg / (1.673*10^-27)kg

L = The distance between the hydrogen atom and the integrated center of effort of the dipole charges in earth, which is is at the center of the earth = the radius of the earth = 6378*10^3 m

F2 = 1.468*10^11

 

Assuming a linear relationship between dipole elongation and hydrogen clock frequency reduction, the error in clock frequency at earths surface caused by dipole gravity should be:

F2 / F1 = (1.468*10^11)/(4.357*10^20) = 3.369*10^-10

 

The atomic clock error at earth level simplistically calculated above using dipole gravity corresponds within 3% to observed values.

 

Deuterium binding energy.

 

Binding energy of deuterium calculated using dipole theory corresponds accurately to published values.

 

 

 

 

Bengt E Nyman 1996-2016

bengtenyman@yahoo.com